[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit ::
Main Menu
Home::
Journal Information::
Articles Archive::
Guide for Authors::
For Reviewers::
Ethical Statements::
Registration::
Site Facilities::
Contact us::
::
Search in website

Advanced Search
..
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
..
Copyright Policies

 

AWT IMAGE

 

..
Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

..
:: Volume 10, Issue 2 (Spring 2022) ::
Shefaye Khatam 2022, 10(2): 68-81 Back to browse issues page
Development of a Model of Loneliness and Death-Anxiety Based on Personality Traits and Cognitive-Emotional Regulation
MARZEH SADAT EBRAHIMY , Firozeh Zanganeh motlagh * , ZABIH PIRANI
Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Arak, Arak, Iran , ebrahimi5901@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1786 Views)
Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop a model of loneliness as well as death anxiety based on personality traits and emotional cognitive regulation with the mediating role of coronavirus anxiety. Materials and Methods: The present study was a correlational study and the statistical population included all citizens of Qom province. 400 people were selected through the case-sampling method and questionnaire on the Five Factors of Personality, Emotional Cognitive Regulation, Coronavirus Anxiety, and loneliness and death anxiety questionnaire. Results: Our findings indicated that personality traits and cognitive emotion regulation account for 14% of the variance in getting coronavirus anxiety. Furthermore, personality traits, cognitive-emotional regulation, and patients with additional viral diseases account for 40% of the variance of feeling lonely and 29% of the variance of the death anxiety. Conclusion: Coronavirus anxiety could mediate personality traits (neuroticism), cognitive regulation (adaptive strategies), loneliness, and death anxiety.
Keywords: Personality, Emotional Regulation, Loneliness, Anxiety, COVID-19
Full-Text [PDF 1773 kb]   (1672 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research --- Open Access, CC-BY-NC | Subject: Psycology
References
1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang, B, Song J., et al. China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(8): 727-33. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017]
2. Hagerty SL, Williams LM. The impact of COVID-19 on mental health: The interactive roles of brain biotypes and human connection. Brain Behav Immun Health. 2020; 5, 100078. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100078]
3. Yuan B, Li W, Liu H, Cai X, Song S, Zhao J, Hu X, Li Z, Chen Y, Zhang K., Liu Z, Peng J, Wang C, Wang J, An Y. Correlation between immune response and self-reported depression during convalescence from COVID-19. Brain Behav Immun. 2020; 88:39-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.062]
4. Maaravi Y, & Heller B. Not all worries were created equal: The case of COVID-19 anxiety. Public Health. 2020, 185:243-45. [DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2020.06.032]
5. Aardema F. COVID-19, Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder and Invisible Life Forms that Threaten the Self. J Obsessive Compuls Relat Disord. 2020; 100558. [DOI:10.1016/j.jocrd.2020.100558]
6. Das N, Narnoli S, Kaur A, Sarkar S. Pandemic, panic, and psychiatrists - What should be done before, during, and after COVID-19? Asian J Psychiatr. 2020; 53, 102206. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102206]
7. Shaw S CK. Hopelessness, helplessness and resilience: The importance of safeguarding our trainees' mental wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nurse Educ Pract. 2020, 44, 102780. [DOI:10.1016/j.nepr.2020.102780]
8. Shahed hagh Moghadam H, Fathi Ashtiani A, Rahnejat A M, Ahmadi Tahour Soltani M, Taghva A, Ebrahimi M R, etal. Psychological Consequences and Interventions during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Narrative Review. J Mar Med. 2020; 2 (1): 1-11. [Persian].
9. Hasani O, shahbaziyankhonig A, sheikhalizadeh S. Discriminative role of loneliness in discrimination of students with high and low mental well-being. Dev Psychol. 2020; 8 (11): 169-176. [Persian].
10. Russell D. Social and emotional loneliness: an examination of Weiss's typology of loneliness. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1984; 46 (6): 1313. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.46.6.1313]
11. Mund M, Johnson MD. Lonely Me. Lonely You: Loneliness and the Longitudinal Course of Relationship Satisfaction. J Happiness Stud. 2020; 1-23. [DOI:10.1007/s10902-020-00241-9]
12. Jahangiri M. Prediction of death anxiety, according to religious orientation and loneliness in elderly in Arak city. J. Gerontol." 2017; 2 (1): 58-66. [Persian]. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.joge.1.4.58]
13. Jamadar C., Kumari A. Forgiveness and death anxiety in tribes. Motiv Emot. 2019; 12(1), 152-66.
14. Draper EJ, Hillen MA, Moors M., Ket JCF, VanLaarhoven HWM. Henselmans I. Relationship between physicians' death anxiety and medical communication and decision-making: A systematic review. Patient Educ Couns. 2019; 102(2):266-74. [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2018.09.019]
15. Costa PT, McCrae R. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment. 1983.
16. Allen TA., & DeYoung C G. Personality neuroscience and the five factor model. In T. A. Widiger (Ed), Oxford handbook of the five factor model. 319-52. 2017 New York: Oxford University Press. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199352487.013.26]
17. Mahbod M, Foolad Cheng M. The relationship between the five major personality factors and unproductive academic behavior through perceived inhibition mediation: Structural modeling. J Dev Psycholo: Iran Psychol. 2016; 12 (47), 279-65.
18. Elahi T, Bamdadi M, Shirmohammadi F. Feeling of social-emotional loneliness in extroverted and introverted personalities is perceived according to the role of different types of social support. J Clin Psychol Pers. 2019; 17 (1), 11-21. [Persian].
19. Zhang Y. Personality, social support, and loneliness among centenarians: a comparison between self- and proxy reports. (Mo). Iowa State University. 2015.
20. Utz RL, Swenson K¬L, Caserta M, Lund D, DeVries B. Feeling lonely versus being alone: loneliness and social support among recently bereaved persons. J Gero Serie B: Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2016; 33 (1)36.
21. Tabe Bordbar F, Asadi M, Ismaili r. Prediction of death anxiety in the elderly based on personality types and mental health. J Ageing Psychol. 2019; 5 (3), 239-49.
22. McKenzie EL, Brown PM, Mak AS, Chamberlain P. 'Old and ill': death anxiety and coping strategies influencing health professionals' well-being and dementia care. Aging & Ment Health. 2017; 21(6), 634-641. [DOI:10.1080/13607863.2016.1144711]
23. Mavrogiorgou p, Haller¬ k, Juckel G. Death anxiety and attitude to death in patients with schizophrenia and depression. psychiatry res. 2020; 290:113148. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113148]
24. Garnefski N, Baan N, Kraaij V. Psychological distress and cognitive emotion regulation strategies among farmers who fell victim to the foot-and-mouth crisis. Pers Individ Dif. 2006; 38(6), 1317-1327. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2004.08.014]
25. Potthoff S, Garnefski N, Miklósi M, Ubbiali A, Domínguez-Sánchez FJ, Martins EC, Witthöft M, Kraai V. Cognitive emotion regulation and psychopathology across cultures: A comparison between six European countries. Pers Individ Dif. 2016; 25(2), 218-24. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.022]
26. Zafari S, Khademi Eshkezari M. Investigating the structural model of the role of cognitive strategies, emotion regulation, mindfulness and perfectionism in predicting emotional problems in students. J Psychol Sci. 2020; 19 (87), 321-28. [Persian]. [DOI:10.29252/psychosci.19.87.321]
27. Siavoshani F, Borjali A, Kiamanesh A. Providing a model for predicting girls 'feelings of loneliness based on mothers' attachment styles mediated by emotional regulation problems. J Psychol Res. 2018; 13 (51), 85-112. [Persian].
28. Shan Wong SY, Zhang D, Shan Sit RW, Kei Yip BH, Yat R, Chung N, Man Wong CK, Chun Chan DC, Sun W, Kwok KU, Mercer SW. Impact of COVID-19 on loneliness, mental health, and health service utilization. Br J Gen Pract. 2020, 817-24. [DOI:10.3399/bjgp20X713021]
29. Williams D , Thompson J, Andrews, G. The impact of psychological distress tolerance in the treatment of depression, Behav Res Ther. 2013; 51, 469 - 75. [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2013.05.005]
30. Gyurak A. Gross JJ. Etkin A. Explicitand implicit emotion regulation: A dual-processframework. J Cogn. 2011; 25, 400-12. [DOI:10.1080/02699931.2010.544160]
31. Bruggink, A., Huisman, S., Vuijk, R., Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. Cognitive emotion regulation, anxiety and depression in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2016, 22, 34-44. [DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2015.11.003]
32. Vesali H, Lachini A, Afshani R, limited time M. The relationship between defense styles and cognitive emotion regulation strategies with death anxiety in the elderly. J Thou Death. 2020; 14 (55), 25-17. [Persian].
33. Khademi ashkzari M, Jamaati ardakani R, Kaghazgaran F. Evaluation of the Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in the Relationship between Positive and Negative Emotions with Death Anxiety and Chronic Fatigue in Nurses. Nurse and Midwife. 2020; 6 (2): 54-68. [Persian].
34. Parry J. China coronavirus: cases surge as official admits human to human transmission. BMJ. 2020; 20; 368. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.m236]
35. Adhikari SP., Meng S., Wu Y-J., Mao Y-P., Ye R-X Wang Q-Z., et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020; 9(1):1-12. [DOI:10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x]
36. Meshram S, Gattani D, Shewale A, Bodele S. Association of Personality Traits with Oral Health Status: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2017, 4(2), 95- 61. [DOI:10.25215/0402.167]
37. Van, Dijk S, Hanssen D, Naarding P, Lucassen P, Comijs H, Voshaar RO. Big Five personality traits and medically unexplained symptoms in later life. Eur Psychiatry. 2016; 38, 23-30. [DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.05.002]
38. Zajenkowski, M., Jonason, PK., Leniarska, M, & Kozakiewicz Z. Who complies with the restrictions to reduce the spread of COVID-19?: personality and perceptions of the COVID-19 situation. Personality and Individual Differences. 2020, 166, 110199. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2020.110199]
39. Pérez-Fuentes MDM, Molero Jurado MDM, Fátima Oropesa N, Martos Martínez A, Simón Márquez MdM, Herrera-Peco I, Gázquez Linares JJ. [Questionnaire on Perception of Threat from COVID-19. J Clin Med. 2020; 9(4):96-104. [DOI:10.3390/jcm9041196]
40. Huh HJ, Kim KH, Lee HK, Chae JH. The relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of adulthood depression and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample: The mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. J Affect Disord. 2017; 213:44-50. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2017.02.009]
41. Strauss, AY., Kivity, Y., & Huppert, JD. Emotion regulation strategies in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Behavior Therapy. 2019, 50(3):659-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2018.10.005]
42. Dalton L, Rapa E, Stein A. Protecting the psychological health of children through effective communication about COVID-19. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020, 4(5), 346-47. [DOI:10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30097-3]
43. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, & Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. The Lancet. 2020; 395(10223), 470-73. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9]
44. Brooks, SK., Webster, RK., Smith, LE., Woodland, L, Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020; 14;395 (10227):912-20. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8]
45. Abolmoali Hosseni KH. Psychological and educational consequences of coronary heart disease in students and strategies to deal with them. J. Educ. Psychol. 2020; 15 (56), 166-53. [Persian].
46. Li LZ, Wang S. Prevalence and predictors of general psychiatric disorders and loneliness during COVID-19 in the United Kingdom. Psychiatry Res. 2020; 291, 113267. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113267]
47. Kline, R.B. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: GuilfordPress. 2011.
48. Russell DW. UCLA Loneliness Scale [version 3]: Reliability, validity, and factor structure. J Pers Assess. 1996; 66(1), 20-40. [DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2]
49. Sudani M, Shojaeian M, Nisi A. The effectiveness of group therapy on the feeling of loneliness of retired men. J Cogn Behav Scie Rese. 2012; 1 (2), 43-54. [Persian].
50. Templer DI. The construction and validation of a Death Anxiety Scale. J Gen Psychol. 1970; 82,77-165. [DOI:10.1080/00221309.1970.9920634]
51. Rajabi Gh, critical m. Factor analysis of death anxiety scale questions. J Psychol. 2001, 4 (20), 331-443. [Persian].
52. Farrokhi A, Soleimani M. The role of personality traits and maladaptive schemas in early prediction of students' mental health [girls and boys]. J Disabil Stud. 2014; 4 (4), 33-42. [Persian].
53. Grossi Farshi MT. Standardization of Neo personality test and study and analysis of its characteristics and factor structure among students of Iranian universities. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University. 1998.
54. Costa PT, McCrae R. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychol Asses.1983.
55. Grossi Farshi, MT, Mehryar AH, Tabatabai, M. Application of a new neo-personality test and study of the analysis of its characteristics and factor structure among students of Iranian universities. J Humanit, 2001; 11 (39), 173-98.
56. Amani A, Isainejad A, Dear A. Investigating the structural relationships of early maladaptive schemas and personality factors with marital adjustment. J Psychol Res. 2015; 10 (37), 45-70. [Persian].
57. Garnefski N, Kraaij V, Spinhoven P. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Pers Individ Dif. 2002; 30 (8), 1311-27. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00113-6]
58. Besharat MA. Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Execution and scoring method. Trans Psycho: Iran Psycho. 2016; 13 (50), 221-3. [Persian].
59. Garnefski N, Kraaij V. Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Pers Individ Dif, 2006; 40 (8), 1659-69. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2005.12.009]
60. Hassani J. The effect of re-evaluating and suppressing emotional experiences on brain activity by looking at the dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism. PhD thesis in psychology, unpublished by Tarbiat Modares University.2008. [Persian].
61. Alipour A, Ghadami A, Alipour Z, Abdollahzadeh H. Preliminary validation of the Corona Anxiety Scale [CDAS] in an Iranian sample. J Health Psychol. 2019, 8 (4), 163-75. [Persian].
62. Qian, K.، & Yahara, T. Mentality and behavior in COVID-19 emergency status in Japan: Influence of personality, morality and ideology. Mentality and behavior in COVID-19 emergency status in Japan.2020, 15(7): 1-16. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0235883]
63. Gubler DA, Makowski LM, Troche SJ, Schlegel K. Loneliness and Well Being During the Covid 19 Pandemic: Associations with Personality and Emotion Regulation. J Happiness Stud. 2020; 10902-020-00326-5. [DOI:10.1007/s10902-020-00326-5]
64. Lázaro-Pérez C, Martínez-López JA, Gómez-Galán J, Fernández-Martínez MM. COVID-19 Pandemic and Death Anxiety in Security Forces in Spain. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(7760), 2-16. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17217760]
65. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study on active Weibo users. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(6):2032. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17062032]
66. Galea S, Merchant RM, Lurie N. The mental health consequences of COVID-19 and physical distancing: The need for prevention and early intervention. JAMA Intern Med. 2020; 180(6):817- 18. [DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1562]
67. Kang L Li Y, Hu S, Chen M, Yang C, Yang BX et al. [2020]. The men¬tal health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. The Lancet Psychiatry; 7(3):e14. [DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X]
68. Ezazi Bojnourdi E, Ghadampour S, Moradi Shakib A, Ghazbanzadeh R. Predicting Corona Anxiety based on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Health Hardiness and Death Anxiety in Diabetic Patients. J Psychiatr Nurs. 2020; 8 (2): 34-44. [Persian].
69. Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommenda tions. Gen Psychiatr. 2020; 33(2). [DOI:10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213]
70. Domaradzka E, Fajkowska M. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies in anxiety and depression understood as types of personality. Front Psychol. 2018; 9, 856. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00856]
71. Diedrich A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S.G., Hiller, W., & Berking, M. Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2016; 58, 43-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2014.05.006]
72. Kramer U, Grandjean L, Beuchat H, Kolly S, Conus P. Mechanisms of change in brief treatments for borderline personality disorder: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2020; 16;21(1):335. [DOI:10.1186/s13063-020-4229-z]
73. Grossmann I, Weststrate N M, Ardelt M, Brienza J, Dong M, Ferrari M, Vervaeke J. The science of wisdom in a polarized world: Knowns and unknowns. Am J Psychoanal, 2020; 31(2); 103-133. [DOI:10.1080/1047840X.2020.1750917]
74. Kolivand P H, Kazemi H. The Effects of COVID-19 on Mental Health, Socio-Economic Issues, and Social Interactions in Tehran: A Pilot Study. Shefaye Khatam. 2021; 9 (2): 100-110. [DOI:10.52547/shefa.9.2.100]
75. Khanizadeh A, Ejlali M, Karimzadeh F. The Effect of SARS-COV-2 Viruses on the Function of Different Organs, Especially the Nervous System. Shefaye Khatam. 2020; 8 (3):111-121. [DOI:10.29252/shefa.8.3.111]
76. Farahbakhsh Beh S, Mehrinejad A, Moazedian A. Structural Model of Quality of Life in Patients with Breast Cancer: The Role of Psychological Hardiness, Religious Orientation, Perceived Social Protection and Self-Efficacy with Mediation of Resilience and Death Anxiety. Shefaye Khatam. 2019; 8 (1): 86-98. [DOI:10.29252/shefa.8.1.86]



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

EBRAHIMY M S, Zanganeh motlagh F, PIRANI Z. Development of a Model of Loneliness and Death-Anxiety Based on Personality Traits and Cognitive-Emotional Regulation. Shefaye Khatam 2022; 10 (2) :68-81
URL: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-2301-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 10, Issue 2 (Spring 2022) Back to browse issues page
مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 45 queries by YEKTAWEB 4657