[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles Archive::
Guide for Authors::
For Reviewers::
Ethical Statements::
Site Facilities::
Contact us::
Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
Copyright Policies




Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

:: Volume 11, Issue 1 (Winter 2022) ::
Shefaye Khatam 2022, 11(1): 13-24 Back to browse issues page
Comparison of Cold Executive Functions in People Addicted to Computer Games, Drug Addicts and Normal People
Afsaneh Moradi * , Farzaneh Pouladi , Vahid Farnia , Mostafa Alikhani
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran , moradiafsane@pgu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (680 Views)
Introduction: With the increasing use of computers and the Internet, computer game addiction has been suggested as a new psychiatric disorder. Much evidence has shown that at the level of neural circuits, computer game addiction is similar to drug addiction, although there are very few studies comparing brain functions. The present study aimed to compare cold executive functions between people addicted to gaming, patients addicted to drugs (Heroin and methamphetamine), and normal people. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 180 men (45 subjects in 4 groups of heroin-addicted patients, methamphetamine-addicted patients, people addicted to computer games, and normal people) who were selected by the available sampling method. N-back test, continuous performance test, and Passat test were used to determine visual working memory, sustained attention, and auditory working memory. Multivariate variance analysis and univariate variance analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that the values of visual working memory, sustained attention, and auditory visual working memory in substance-dependent groups were significantly lower compared to normal and game-dependent groups. Conclusion: It seems that the game-dependent group is completely similar to the normal group in terms of cold executive functions, and there is no similarity between the game-dependent group and the substance-dependent groups.
Keywords: Video Games, Substance-Related Disorders, Memory, Short-Term
Full-Text [PDF 1201 kb]   (619 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research --- Open Access, CC-BY-NC | Subject: Psycology
1. Widyanto L, McMurran M. The psychometric properties of the internet addiction test. Cyberpsychology & behavior. 2004; 7(4): 443-50. [DOI:10.1089/cpb.2004.7.443]
2. Weinstein A, Greif J, Yemini Z, Lerman H, Weizman A, Even-Sapir E. Attenuation of cue-induced smoking urges and brain reward activity in smokers treated successfully with bupropion. Journal of psychopharmacology. 2010; 24(6): 829-38. [DOI:10.1177/0269881109105456]
3. Guha M. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Reference Reviews. 2014.
4. Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies. Brain sciences. 2012; 2(3): 347-74. [DOI:10.3390/brainsci2030347]
5. Butler K, Le Foll B. Impact of substance use disorder pharmacotherapy on executive function: A narrative review. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2019; 10. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00098]
6. Mintzer MZ, Stitzer ML. Cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2002; 67(1): 41-51. [DOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00013-3]
7. Miyake A, Friedman NP. The Nature and Organization of Individual Differences in Executive Functions: Four General Conclusions. Current directions in psychological science. 2012; 21(1): 8-14. [DOI:10.1177/0963721411429458]
8. Ward J. The student's guide to cognitive neuroscience: psychology press; 2015. [DOI:10.4324/9781315742397]
9. Peterson E, Welsh MC. The development of hot and cool executive functions in childhood and adolescence: Are we getting warmer? Handbook of executive functioning. 2014: 45-65. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-8106-5_4]
10. Domínguez-Salas S, Díaz-Batanero C, Lozano-Rojas OM, Verdejo-García A. Impact of general cognition and executive function deficits on addiction treatment outcomes: Systematic review and discussion of neurocognitive pathways. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2016; 71: 772-801. [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.030]
11. Ersche K, Turton A, Chamberlain S, Müller-Sedgwick U, Bullmore E, Robbins T. Cognitive Dysfunction and Anxious-Impulsive Personality Traits Are Endophenotypes for Drug Dependence. The American journal of psychiatry. 2012; 169: 926-36. [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11091421]
12. Ashare RL, Falcone M, Lerman C. Cognitive function during nicotine withdrawal: Implications for nicotine dependence treatment. Neuropharmacology. 2014; 76: 581-91. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.034]
13. Verdejo-García A, López-Torrecillas F, Giménez CO, Pérez-García M. Clinical implications and methodological challenges in the study of the neuropsychological correlates of cannabis, stimulant, and opioid abuse. Neuropsychology review. 2004; 14(1): 1-41. [DOI:10.1023/B:NERV.0000026647.71528.83]
14. Lyvers M. " Loss of control" in alcoholism and drug addiction: a neuroscientific interpretation. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2000; 8(2): 225. [DOI:10.1037/1064-1297.8.2.225]
15. Tomasi D, Goldstein R, Telang F, Maloney T, Alia-Klein N, Caparelli E, et al. Widespread disruption in brain activation patterns to a working memory task during cocaine abstinence. Brain research. 2007; 1171: 83-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.06.102]
16. Lee TM, Zhou W-h, Luo X-j, Yuen KS, Ruan X-z, Weng X-c. Neural activity associated with cognitive regulation in heroin users: a fMRI study. Neuroscience letters. 2005; 382(3): 211-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2005.03.053]
17. Goldstein RZ, Leskovjan AC, Hoff AL, Hitzemann R, Bashan F, Khalsa SS, et al. Severity of neuropsychological impairment in cocaine and alcohol addiction: association with metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia. 2004; 42(11): 1447-58. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.04.002]
18. Spronk DB, van Wel JH, Ramaekers JG, Verkes RJ. Characterizing the cognitive effects of cocaine: a comprehensive review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2013; 37(8): 1838-59. [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.07.003]
19. Verdejo-Garcia A. Executive dysfunction in addiction. Executive functions in health and disease: Elsevier; 2017. p. 395-403. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-803676-1.00016-7]
20. Seo D, Lacadie CM, Tuit K, Hong K-I, Constable RT, Sinha R. Disrupted ventromedial prefrontal function, alcohol craving, and subsequent relapse risk. JAMA psychiatry. 2013; 70(7): 727-39. [DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.762]
21. Park HS, Kim SH, Bang SA, Yoon EJ, Cho SS, Kim SE. Altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in internet game overusers: a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study. CNS spectrums. 2010; 15(3): 159-66. [DOI:10.1017/S1092852900027437]
22. Dong G, Zhou H, Zhao X. Male Internet addicts show impaired executive control ability: evidence from a color-word Stroop task. Neuroscience letters. 2011; 499(2): 114-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2011.05.047]
23. Dong G, Shen Y, Huang J, Du X. Impaired error-monitoring function in people with internet addiction disorder: an event-related fMRI study. European addiction research. 2013; 19(5): 269-75. [DOI:10.1159/000346783]
24. Demetrovics Z, Urbán R, Nagygyörgy K, Farkas J, Griffiths MD, Pápay O, et al. The development of the problematic online gaming questionnaire (POGQ). PloS one. 2012; 7(5): e36417. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036417]
25. Nazari A, Amini Manesh S, Moradi A, Farzad V. Standardization of Online Gaming Addiction Questionnaire. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 2015; 22(4): 603-11.
26. Kane MJ, Conway ARA, Miura TK, Colflesh GJH. Working memory, attention control, and the N-back task: a question of construct validity. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 2007; 33(3): 615-22. [DOI:10.1037/0278-7393.33.3.615]
27. Tombaugh TN. A comprehensive review of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2006; 21(1): 53-76. [DOI:10.1016/j.acn.2005.07.006]
28. Berwid OG, Curko Kera EA, Marks DJ, Santra A, Bender HA, Halperin JM. Sustained attention and response inhibition in young children at risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46 (11); 1219-29. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.00417.x]
29. Choi J-S, Park SM, Roh M-S, Lee J-Y, Park C-B, Hwang JY, et al. Dysfunctional inhibitory control and impulsivity in Internet addiction. Psychiatry research. 2014; 215(2): 424-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.001]
30. Park M-H, Park E-J, Choi J, Chai S, Lee J-H, Lee C, et al. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests. Psychiatry Research. 2011; 190 (2-3): 275-81. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.08.006]
31. Huang V, Young M, Fiocco AJ. The association between video game play and cognitive function: does gaming platform matter? Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2017; 20(11): 689-94. [DOI:10.1089/cyber.2017.0241]
32. Syväoja HJ, Tammelin TH, Ahonen T, Kankaanpää A, Kantomaa MT. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children. PloS one. 2014; 9(7): e103559. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103559]
33. Özçetin M, Gümüştaş F, Çağ Y, Gökbay İZ, Özmel A. The relationships between video game experience and cognitive abilities in adolescents. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2019; 15: 1171. [DOI:10.2147/NDT.S206271]
34. Bopp KL, Verhaeghen P. Aging and verbal memory span: A meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2005; 60(5): P223-P33. [DOI:10.1093/geronb/60.5.P223]
35. Gentile D. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: A national study. Psychological science. 2009; 20(5): 594-602. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02340.x]
36. Canales JJ. Comparative neuroscience of stimulant-induced memory dysfunction: role for neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Behavioural pharmacology. 2010; 21(5-6): 379-93. [DOI:10.1097/FBP.0b013e32833e16b6]
37. Bustamante J-C, Barrós-Loscertales A, Ventura-Campos N, Sanjuán A, Llopis J-J, Parcet M-A, et al. Right parietal hypoactivation in a cocaine-dependent group during a verbal working memory task. Brain Research. 2011; 1375: 111-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.042]
38. Nigg JT, Stavro G, Ettenhofer M, Hambrick DZ, Miller T, Henderson JM. Executive functions and ADHD in adults: evidence for selective effects on ADHD symptom domains. Journal of abnormal psychology. 2005; 114(4): 706. [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.114.3.706]
39. Zhou Z, Zhou H, Zhu H. Working memory, executive function and impulsivity in Internet-addictive disorders: a comparison with pathological gambling. Acta Neuropsychiatrica. 2016; 28(2): 92-100. [DOI:10.1017/neu.2015.54]
40. Ward AF, Duke K, Gneezy A, Bos MW. Brain drain: The mere presence of one's own smartphone reduces available cognitive capacity. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research. 2017; 2(2): 140-54. [DOI:10.1086/691462]
41. Farchakh Y, Haddad C, Sacre H, Obeid S, Salameh P, Hallit S. Video gaming addiction and its association with memory, attention and learning skills in Lebanese children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 2020; 14(1): 1-11. [DOI:10.1186/s13034-020-00353-3]
42. Green CS, Bavelier D. Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature. 2003; 423(6939): 534-7. [DOI:10.1038/nature01647]
43. Du X, Yang Y, Gao P, Qi X, Du G, Zhang Y, et al. Compensatory increase of functional connectivity density in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. Brain Imaging and Behavior. 2017; 11(6): 1901-9. [DOI:10.1007/s11682-016-9655-x]
44. Clark K, Fleck MS, Mitroff SR. Enhanced change detection performance reveals improved strategy use in avid action video game players. Acta psychologica. 2011; 136 (1); 67-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.10.003]
45. Goldstein RZ, Volkow ND. Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. The American journal of psychiatry. 2002; 159(10): 1642-52. [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.10.1642]
46. Myrick H, Anton RF, Li X, Henderson S, Drobes D, Voronin K, et al. Differential Brain Activity in Alcoholics and Social Drinkers to Alcohol Cues: Relationship to Craving. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004; 29(2): 393-402. [DOI:10.1038/sj.npp.1300295]
47. Weinstein A, Lejoyeux M. New developments on the neurobiological and pharmaco-genetic mechanisms underlying internet and videogame addiction. The American journal on addictions. 2015; 24(2): 117-25. [DOI:10.1111/ajad.12110]

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

moradi A, pouladi F, farnia V, alikhani M. Comparison of Cold Executive Functions in People Addicted to Computer Games, Drug Addicts and Normal People. Shefaye Khatam 2022; 11 (1) :13-24
URL: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-2337-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 11, Issue 1 (Winter 2022) Back to browse issues page
مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 45 queries by YEKTAWEB 4624