[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit ::
Main Menu
Home::
Journal Information::
Articles Archive::
Guide for Authors::
For Reviewers::
Ethical Statements::
Registration::
Site Facilities::
Contact us::
::
Search in website

Advanced Search
..
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
..
Copyright Policies

 

AWT IMAGE

 

..
Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

..
:: Volume 10, Issue 1 (Winter 2021) ::
Shefaye Khatam 2021, 10(1): 65-74 Back to browse issues page
Cognitive Control in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Investigation of Proactive and Reactive Inhibition
Ehsan Matinfar , Imanollah Bigdeli * , Ali Mashhadi
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran , ibigdeli@um.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2222 Views)
Introduction: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders, which its core features represent basic elements of a wide variety of psychopathology categories. GAD has unknown aspects and neurocognitive accounts consider deficits in cognitive control as a basis for etiology and maintenance of this disorder. Cognitive control consists of three components; shifting, updating, and inhibition. The present study investigated inhibition as a facet of cognitive control in people with GAD. Materials and Methods: Using the voluntary sampling method, 80 students of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad participated in this retrospective study. Via announcement on the campus of the university, normal students and those who had GAD symptoms contacted researchers. Based on the scores of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and structured diagnostic interview, participants were divided into two groups; control and GAD. Finally, the stop-signal task (SST) was used to assess reactive and proactive inhibition. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between reactive and proactive inhibition. The GAD group had significantly higher performance than the normal group in reactive and proactive inhibition. The GAD group also had more omission errors as well as fewer commission errors than the normal group. Conclusion: Inhibitory control plays a major role in GAD and explains several behavioral problems in this population. Excessive inhibition in GAD might be linked to behaviors, like freezing, procrastination, and threat detection in anxiety. Therefore, focusing on deficits in cognitive control and inhibition plays a major role in neurocognitive interventions of this disorder.
Keywords: Anxiety Disorders, Executive Function, Proactive Inhibition, Reactive Inhibition
Full-Text [PDF 1047 kb]   (835 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research --- Open Access, CC-BY-NC | Subject: Psycology
References
1. Newman MG, Shin KE, LaFreniere LS. Mechanisms and Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Treatments for Psychological Problems and Syndromes. 2017: 100. [DOI:10.1002/9781118877142.ch8]
2. Edition F. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Am Psychiatric Assoc. 2013.
3. Behar E, DiMarco ID, Hekler EB, Mohlman J, Staples AM. Current theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Conceptual review and treatment implications. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2009; 23(8): 1011-23. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.07.006]
4. Hirsch CR, Mathews A. A cognitive model of pathological worry. Behaviour research and therapy. 2012; 50(10): 636-46. [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2012.06.007]
5. Joormann J. Differential effects of rumination and dysphoria on the inhibition of irrelevant emotional material: Evidence from a negative priming task. Cognitive therapy and research. 2006; 30(2): 149-60. [DOI:10.1007/s10608-006-9035-8]
6. Cohen JD. Cognitive control: Core constructs and current considerations. The Wiley handbook of cognitive control. 2017: 1-28. [DOI:10.1002/9781118920497.ch1]
7. Miyake A, Friedman NP, Emerson MJ, Witzki AH, Howerter A, Wager TD. The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "frontal lobe" tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive psychology. 2000; 41(1): 49-100. [DOI:10.1006/cogp.1999.0734]
8. Eysenck MW, Derakshan N. New perspectives in attentional control theory. Personality and Individual Differences. 2011; 50(7): 955-60. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2010.08.019]
9. Hallion LS, Tolin DF, Assaf M, Goethe J, Diefenbach GJ. Cognitive control in generalized anxiety disorder: relation of inhibition impairments to worry and anxiety severity. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2017; 41(4): 610-8. [DOI:10.1007/s10608-017-9832-2]
10. Grillon C, Robinson O, O'connell K, Davis A, Alvarez G, Pine D, et al. Clinical anxiety promotes excessive response inhibition. Psychological medicine. 2017; 47(3): 484-94. [DOI:10.1017/S0033291716002555]
11. Robinson OJ, Krimsky M, Grillon C. The impact of induced anxiety on response inhibition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2013; 7: 69. [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00069]
12. Karch S, Jäger L, Karamatskos E, Graz C, Stammel A, Flatz W, et al. Influence of trait anxiety on inhibitory control in alcohol-dependent patients: simultaneous acquisition of ERPs and BOLD responses. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2008; 42(9): 734-45. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.07.016]
13. Righi S, Mecacci L, Viggiano MP. Anxiety, cognitive self-evaluation and performance: ERP correlates. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2009; 23(8): 1132-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.07.018]
14. Sehlmeyer C, Konrad C, Zwitserlood P, Arolt V, Falkenstein M, Beste C. ERP indices for response inhibition are related to anxiety-related personality traits. Neuropsychologia. 2010; 48(9): 2488-95. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.04.022]
15. Li C-sR, Chao HH-A, Lee T-W. Neural correlates of speeded as compared with delayed responses in a stop signal task: an indirect analog of risk taking and association with an anxiety trait. Cerebral cortex. 2009; 19(4): 839-48. [DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhn132]
16. Neo PS-H, Thurlow JK, McNaughton N. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. 2011; 11(4): 485-93. [DOI:10.3758/s13415-011-0046-x]
17. Braver TS. The variable nature of cognitive control: a dual mechanisms framework. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2012; 16(2): 106-13. [DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2011.12.010]
18. Logan GD, Cowan WB. On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A theory of an act of control. Psychological review. 1984; 91(3): 295. [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.295]
19. Logan GD. On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A users' guide to the stop signal paradigm. 1994.
20. Chikazoe J, Jimura K, Hirose S, Yamashita K-i, Miyashita Y, Konishi S. Preparation to inhibit a response complements response inhibition during performance of a stop-signal task. Journal of Neuroscience. 2009; 29(50): 15870-7. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3645-09.2009]
21. Verbruggen F, Logan GD. Models of response inhibition in the stop-signal and stop-change paradigms. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2009; 33(5): 647-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.08.014]
22. Verbruggen F, Best M, Bowditch WA, Stevens T, McLaren IP. The inhibitory control reflex. Neuropsychologia. 2014; 65: 263-78. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.08.014]
23. Jahfari S, Stinear CM, Claffey M, Verbruggen F, Aron AR. Responding with restraint: what are the neurocognitive mechanisms? Journal of cognitive neuroscience. 2010; 22(7): 1479-92. [DOI:10.1162/jocn.2009.21307]
24. Meyer TJ, Miller ML, Metzger RL, Borkovec TD. Development and validation of the penn state worry questionnaire. Behaviour research and therapy. 1990; 28(6): 487-95. [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(90)90135-6]
25. Borjali A, Sohrabi F, Dehshiri G, Golzari M. Psychometrics particularity of farsi version of Pennsylvania state worry questionnaire for college students. Applied Psychology. 2010; 4(1): 67-75.
26. First MB. Structured clinical interview for the DSM (SCID). The encyclopedia of clinical psychology. 2014: 1-6. [DOI:10.1002/9781118625392.wbecp351]
27. Field A. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (3rd edition). Los Angeles: Sage. 2009.
28. Ansari TL, Derakshan N. The neural correlates of impaired inhibitory control in anxiety. Neuropsychologia. 2011; 49(5): 1146-53. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.01.019]
29. Verbruggen F, Logan GD. Proactive adjustments of response strategies in the stop-signal paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 2009; 35(3): 835. [DOI:10.1037/a0012726]
30. Leotti LA, Wager TD. Motivational influences on response inhibition measures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 2010; 36(2): 430. [DOI:10.1037/a0016802]
31. Liddle EB, Scerif G, Hollis CP, Batty MJ, Groom MJ, Liotti M, et al. Looking before you leap: A theory of motivated control of action. Cognition. 2009; 112(1): 141-58. [DOI:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.03.006]
32. Hofmann SG, Hay AC. Rethinking avoidance: Toward a balanced approach to avoidance in treating anxiety disorders. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2018; 55: 14-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2018.03.004]
33. Bardeen JR, Fergus TA, Orcutt HK. Experiential avoidance as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and perceived stress. Behavior Therapy. 2013; 44(3): 459-69. [DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2013.04.001]
34. Beesdo‐Baum K, Jenjahn E, Höfler M, Lueken U, Becker ES, Hoyer J. Avoidance, safety behavior, and reassurance seeking in generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety. 2012; 29(11): 948-57. [DOI:10.1002/da.21955]
35. Dickson J, MacLeod A. Brief Report Anxiety, depression and approach and avoidance goals. Cognition and Emotion. 2004; 18(3): 423-30. [DOI:10.1080/02699930341000013]
36. Berman NC, Wheaton MG, McGrath P, Abramowitz JS. Predicting anxiety: The role of experiential avoidance and anxiety sensitivity. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2010; 24(1): 109-13. [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.09.005]
37. Metzger RL, Miller ML, Cohen M, Sofka M, Borkovec TD. Worry changes decisionf making: The effect of negative thoughts on cognitive processing. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1990; 46(1): 78-88. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199001)46:1<78::AID-JCLP2270460113>3.0.CO;2-R [DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(199001)46:13.0.CO;2-R]
38. Tallis F, Eysenck M, Mathews A. Elevated evidence requirements and worry. Personality and Individual Differences. 1991; 12(1): 21-7. [DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90128-X]
39. Kim S, Lee D. Prefrontal cortex and impulsive decision making. Biological psychiatry. 2011; 69(12): 1140-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.07.005]
40. Braver TS, Gray JR, Burgess GC. Explaining the many varieties of working memory variation: Dual mechanisms of cognitive control. Variation in working memory. 2007; 75: 106. [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168648.003.0004]
41. Jaffard M, Longcamp M, Velay J-L, Anton J-L, Roth M, Nazarian B, et al. Proactive inhibitory control of movement assessed by event-related fMRI. Neuroimage. 2008; 42(3): 1196-206. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.05.041]
42. 42 Castro-Meneses LJ, Johnson BW, Sowman PF. The effects of impulsivity and proactive inhibition on reactive inhibition and the go process: insights from vocal and manual stop signal tasks. Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2015; 9: 529. [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00529]
43. Bari A, Robbins TW. Inhibition and impulsivity: behavioral and neural basis of response control. Progress in neurobiology. 2013; 108: 44-79. [DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.06.005]
44. Beswick G, Rothblum ED, Mann L. Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian psychologist. 1988; 23(2): 207-17. [DOI:10.1080/00050068808255605]
45. Onwuegbuzie AJ. Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 2004; 29(1): 3-19 [DOI:10.1080/0260293042000160384]
46. Martin EI, Ressler KJ, Binder E, Nemeroff CB. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders: brain imaging, genetics, and psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychiatric Clinics. 2009; 32(3): 549-75. [DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2009.05.004]



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Matinfar E, Bigdeli I, Mashhadi A. Cognitive Control in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Investigation of Proactive and Reactive Inhibition. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 10 (1) :65-74
URL: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-2185-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 10, Issue 1 (Winter 2021) Back to browse issues page
مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 45 queries by YEKTAWEB 4652