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:: Volume 2, Issue 2 (Spring - 2014) ::
Shefaye Khatam 2014, 2(2): 70-80 Back to browse issues page
Subunits of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptors and their Roles in Neuropsychological Disorders
Asrin Rashidi, Shamseddin Ahmadi *
Department of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran. , sh.ahmadi@uok.ac.ir
Abstract:   (21086 Views)

Introduction: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, plays a pivotal role in synchronization of local neural networks and coupling of brain regions functions. GABA is synthesized in the brain by a metabolic pathway known as ‘GABA shunt’ as it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. There are three types of GABA receptors named GABAA, GABAB and GABAC, which in turn are divided into two classes of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors of GABA including GABAA and GABAC receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, permit influx of chloride ion into neurons after activation, hyperpolarize membrane potential, and subsequently inhibit firing of new action potentials. GABAA receptors are heteropentameres of eight subunits including α, β, γ, δ, ε, θ, π and ρ, which some subunits have more than one isoform. Expression of α1, β2, γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptors in the brain is dominant. GABAC receptors only consist of ρ subunits. GABAB metabotropic receptors belong to G-protein coupled receptors, which via second messengers abolish calcium influx, increase potassium efflux, and decrease cAMP level in neurons. GABAB receptors are heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. Changes in expression of GABA receptors in different brain regions may cause some neuropsychological disorders, including schizophrenia, epilepsy, anxiety, sleep disorder and autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion: With knowledge of diversities in subunit structure of GABA receptors in different brain areas, it is possible to treat neural disorders more effectively.

Keywords: gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Receptors, GABA, Neurodegenerative Diseases
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Type of Study: Review --- Open Access, CC-BY-NC | Subject: Neurophysiopathology

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Rashidi A, Ahmadi S. Subunits of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptors and their Roles in Neuropsychological Disorders. Shefaye Khatam. 2014; 2 (2) :70-80
URL: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-80-en.html

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Volume 2, Issue 2 (Spring - 2014) Back to browse issues page
مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam
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