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:: Volume 11, Issue 3 (Summer 2023) ::
Shefaye Khatam 2023, 11(3): 1-10 Back to browse issues page
Investigation of the Profile of Psychosomatic Disorders and Psychological Problems in Women Recovered from COVID-19
Maryam Nejati Ghafoori , Maryam Moshirian Farahi *
Department of Psychology, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran , Maryam.moshirian@imamreza.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1009 Views)
Introduction: COVID-19 had negative psychological effects. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of psychosomatic disorders and psychological problems in individuals who recovered from COVID-19 and compare it with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: The method of this study was an ex post facto method. The statistical population of this study included all people who recovered from COVID-19 in Mashhad in 2021. A sample of 120 participants was identified using the availability sampling method. Two questionnaires were used: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Psychosomatic Complaint Scale (Takata & Sakata, 2004). Results: The results showed that the profile of psychosomatic disorders and psychological problems significantly differed between individuals who recovered from COVID-19 and healthy individuals. Recovered individuals from COVID-19 had more psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic issues, than healthy subjects. Conclusion: Psychological interventions should be considered for recovered individuals in order to decrease COVID-19-related psychological problems.
 
Keywords: Female, COVID-19, Psychophysiological Disorders
Full-Text [PDF 1195 kb]   (590 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research --- Open Access, CC-BY-NC | Subject: Psycology
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38. Safarinia M. Socio-psychological components of health in Iran. Health Psychology Quarterly, 2013; (11): 101-119. )Persian).
39. Rastgar Farajzadeh L, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Alirezaei Hoor M , Broumand Esfangareh N. Comparison of The Effectiveness of Face -to- Face and Virtual Training of Basic Cognitive Skills in Mental Rehabilitation Day Care Centers during Covid-19 Pandemic Time. Shafaye khatam 2023; 10(1):12-20 (Persian).
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43. mohammadkhanizadeh A, karimzadeh F. COVID-19 and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of Mechanisms and Pathophysiology. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 9 (2) :151-159 (Persian).
44. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study on active Weibo users. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020; 17(6): 2032.
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48. Klomek AB. Suicide prevention during the COVID-19 outbreak. The lancet psychiatry. 2020; 7(5): 390.
49. Lima CK, de Medeiros Carvalho PM, Lima ID, de Oliveira Nunes JV, Saraiva JS, de Souza RI, da Silva CG, Neto ML. The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease). Psychiatry research. 2020; 287: 112915.
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54. Hajlo N. Psychometric properties of Takata and Sakata's psychosomatic complaints scale among Iranian university students. RBS 2012; 10 (3). (Persian).
55. Tovote P, Fadok JP, Lüthi A. Neuronal circuits for fear and anxiety. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015; 16(6):317-31.
56. Tully P.J, Harrison N.J, Cheung P. Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: a Review. Curr Cardiol Rep.2016; 18: 120.
57. Shabbeh Z, Feizi A, Afshar H, Hassanzade Kashtali A, Adibi P. Identifying the Profiles of Psychosomatic Disorders in an Iranian Adult Population and their Relation to Psychological Problems. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016; 26 (137): 82-94 (Persian).
58. Kolivand P, Kolivand Z, Kazemi H, Kolivand M. Frequency of Psychosomatic Symptoms in Patients with Covid-19. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 9 (3) :83-89 (Persian).
59. Teng F, Wang X, Shi J, Chen Z., Huang Q, Cheng W. Psychosomatic Symptoms and Neuroticism following COVID-19: The Role of Online Aggression toward a Stigmatized Group. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2021; 18, 8672.
60. Marinaci T, Carpinelli L, Venuleo C, Savarese G, Cavallo P. Emotional distress, psychosomatic symptoms and their relationship with institutional responses: A survey of Italian frontline medical staff during the Covid-19 pandemic. Heliyon. 2020; 6(12): e05766.
61. Xiang Y T, Yang Y, W Li, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, Ng C H. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatr. 2020; 7 (3): 228-29.
62. Alavian F. Association between COVID-19 Infection and Thrombotic Stroke: A Systematic Review. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 10 (1) :85-98 (Persian).
63. Kleinman A. Writing at the Margin: Discourse between Anthropology and Medicine. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA (1997).
64. Cavallo P, Savarese G, Carpinelli L. Bruxism and health related quality of life in southern Italy's prison inmates. Community Dent. Health, 2014; 13: 117-22
65. Polmann H, Domingos F.L, Melo G, Stuginski-Barbosa J, Guerra E.N., Corporate AL et al. Association between sleep bruxism and anxiety symptoms in adults: a systematic review. J. Oral Rehabil. 2019; 46 (5): 82-91
66. Castiglioni M, Gaj N. Fostering the reconstruction of meaning among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.Front. Psychol.11. 2020; 2741
67. Wu Z, McGoogan J. M. Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China. JAMA. 2020; 323(13): 1239-1242.
68. Dong X, Wang L., Tao Y,Suo X, Li Y, Liu F, Zhao, Y., Zhang, Q. Psychometric properties of the Anxiety Inventory for Respiratory Disease in patients with COPD in China. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; (12): 49-58.
69. Valero-Moreno S, Lacomba-Trejo, L, Casaña-Granell S. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire on threat perception of chronic illnesses in pediatric patients. Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem. 2020; 28: e3242.
70. Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M. and Benedek, D. M. Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. (2020); 74(4): 281-282.
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72. Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Decety, J. Social neuroscience and its relationship to social psychology. Social Cognition.2010; 28: 675-685.
73. Biro A. The book Culture of Social Sciences (English-French-Persian), Bagher Saroukhani. Tehran: Kayhan. 2010; (Persian).
74. Keyes C. M. Social well-being. Social psychology quarterly. 1998; (2): 121-40.
75. Keyes C. M, Shapiro A. Social Well- being in U.S.A. descriptive epidemiology. In Orville Brim, Carol D. (2004).
76. Safarinia M. Socio-psychological components of health in Iran. Health Psychology Quarterly, 2013; (11): 101-119. )Persian).
77. Rastgar Farajzadeh L, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Alirezaei Hoor M , Broumand Esfangareh N. Comparison of The Effectiveness of Face -to- Face and Virtual Training of Basic Cognitive Skills in Mental Rehabilitation Day Care Centers during Covid-19 Pandemic Time. Shafaye khatam 2023; 10(1):12-20 (Persian).
78. Zhu H, Wei L, Niu P. The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Global health research and policy. 2020; 5(1): 1-3.
79. Remuzzi G, Chiurchiu C, Abbate M, Brusegan V, Bontempelli M, Ruggenenti P. Rituximab for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The Lancet. 2002; 360(9337): 923-4.
80. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2020; 55(3): 105924.
81. mohammadkhanizadeh A, karimzadeh F. COVID-19 and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of Mechanisms and Pathophysiology. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 9 (2) :151-159 (Persian).
82. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study on active Weibo users. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020; 17(6): 2032.
83. Liu S, Yang L, Zhang C, Xiang YT, Liu Z, Hu S, Zhang B. Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7(4): e17-8.
84. Yang L, Wu D, Hou Y, Wang X, Dai N, Wang G, Yang Q, Zhao W, Lou Z, Ji Y, Ruan L. Analysis of psychological state and clinical psychological intervention model of patients with COVID-19. MedRxiv. 2020.
85. noroztabar M, Jalilvand M. The Effect of Web-Based Aerobic Exercise on Working Memory in Older Women: the Importance of Being Active in the Covid- 19 Pandemic Period. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 9 (3) :36-44 (Persian).
86. Klomek AB. Suicide prevention during the COVID-19 outbreak. The lancet psychiatry. 2020; 7(5): 390.
87. Lima CK, de Medeiros Carvalho PM, Lima ID, de Oliveira Nunes JV, Saraiva JS, de Souza RI, da Silva CG, Neto ML. The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease). Psychiatry research. 2020; 287: 112915.
88. Fung HT, Lai KP, Luk MH, Chan PF. Evaluation of the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Chinese Patients with Common Mental Disorders in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study. Open Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; 12(2):157-73.
89. Nie XD, Wang Q, Wang MN, Zhao S, Liu L, Zhu YL, Chen H. Anxiety and depression and its correlates in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. 2021; 25(2): 109-14.
90. Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological medicine. 1979; 9(1): 139-45.
91. Yaghubi, H. Validity and factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in university students. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2012; 6(2): 153-60) Persian).
92. Hajlo N. Psychometric properties of Takata and Sakata's psychosomatic complaints scale among Iranian university students. RBS 2012; 10 (3). (Persian).
93. Tovote P, Fadok JP, Lüthi A. Neuronal circuits for fear and anxiety. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015; 16(6):317-31.
94. Tully P.J, Harrison N.J, Cheung P. Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: a Review. Curr Cardiol Rep.2016; 18: 120.
95. Shabbeh Z, Feizi A, Afshar H, Hassanzade Kashtali A, Adibi P. Identifying the Profiles of Psychosomatic Disorders in an Iranian Adult Population and their Relation to Psychological Problems. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016; 26 (137): 82-94 (Persian).
96. Kolivand P, Kolivand Z, Kazemi H, Kolivand M. Frequency of Psychosomatic Symptoms in Patients with Covid-19. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 9 (3) :83-89 (Persian).
97. Teng F, Wang X, Shi J, Chen Z., Huang Q, Cheng W. Psychosomatic Symptoms and Neuroticism following COVID-19: The Role of Online Aggression toward a Stigmatized Group. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2021; 18, 8672.
98. Marinaci T, Carpinelli L, Venuleo C, Savarese G, Cavallo P. Emotional distress, psychosomatic symptoms and their relationship with institutional responses: A survey of Italian frontline medical staff during the Covid-19 pandemic. Heliyon. 2020; 6(12): e05766.
99. Xiang Y T, Yang Y, W Li, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, Ng C H. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatr. 2020; 7 (3): 228-29.
100. Alavian F. Association between COVID-19 Infection and Thrombotic Stroke: A Systematic Review. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 10 (1) :85-98 (Persian).
101. Kleinman A. Writing at the Margin: Discourse between Anthropology and Medicine. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA (1997).
102. Cavallo P, Savarese G, Carpinelli L. Bruxism and health related quality of life in southern Italy's prison inmates. Community Dent. Health, 2014; 13: 117-22
103. Polmann H, Domingos F.L, Melo G, Stuginski-Barbosa J, Guerra E.N., Corporate AL et al. Association between sleep bruxism and anxiety symptoms in adults: a systematic review. J. Oral Rehabil. 2019; 46 (5): 82-91
104. Castiglioni M, Gaj N. Fostering the reconstruction of meaning among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.Front. Psychol.11. 2020; 2741
105. Wu Z, McGoogan J. M. Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China. JAMA. 2020; 323(13): 1239-1242.
106. Dong X, Wang L., Tao Y,Suo X, Li Y, Liu F, Zhao, Y., Zhang, Q. Psychometric properties of the Anxiety Inventory for Respiratory Disease in patients with COPD in China. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; (12): 49-58.
107. Valero-Moreno S, Lacomba-Trejo, L, Casaña-Granell S. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire on threat perception of chronic illnesses in pediatric patients. Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem. 2020; 28: e3242.
108. Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M. and Benedek, D. M. Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. (2020); 74(4): 281-282.
109. Shadi talab J. Crisis management, post-earthquake disaster planning. Social Sciences Quarterly 1371; 2(3.4): 125-151. (Persian).
110. Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Decety, J. Social neuroscience and its relationship to social psychology. Social Cognition.2010; 28: 675-685.
111. Biro A. The book Culture of Social Sciences (English-French-Persian), Bagher Saroukhani. Tehran: Kayhan. 2010; (Persian).
112. Keyes C. M. Social well-being. Social psychology quarterly. 1998; (2): 121-40.
113. Keyes C. M, Shapiro A. Social Well- being in U.S.A. descriptive epidemiology. In Orville Brim, Carol D. (2004).
114. Safarinia M. Socio-psychological components of health in Iran. Health Psychology Quarterly, 2013; (11): 101-119. (Persian).
115. Rastgar Farajzadeh L, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Alirezaei Hoor M , Broumand Esfangareh N. Comparison of The Effectiveness of Face -to- Face and Virtual Training of Basic Cognitive Skills in Mental Rehabilitation Day Care Centers during Covid-19 Pandemic Time. Shafaye khatam 2023; 10(1):12-20 (Persian).
116. Zhu H, Wei L, Niu P. The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Global health research and policy. 2020; 5(1): 1-3.
117. Remuzzi G, Chiurchiu C, Abbate M, Brusegan V, Bontempelli M, Ruggenenti P. Rituximab for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The Lancet. 2002; 360(9337): 923-4.
118. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2020; 55(3): 105924.
119. mohammadkhanizadeh A, karimzadeh F. COVID-19 and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of Mechanisms and Pathophysiology. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 9 (2) :151-159 (Persian).
120. Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study on active Weibo users. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020; 17(6): 2032.
121. Liu S, Yang L, Zhang C, Xiang YT, Liu Z, Hu S, Zhang B. Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7(4): e17-8.
122. Yang L, Wu D, Hou Y, Wang X, Dai N, Wang G, Yang Q, Zhao W, Lou Z, Ji Y, Ruan L. Analysis of psychological state and clinical psychological intervention model of patients with COVID-19. MedRxiv. 2020.
123. noroztabar M, Jalilvand M. The Effect of Web-Based Aerobic Exercise on Working Memory in Older Women: the Importance of Being Active in the Covid- 19 Pandemic Period. Shefaye Khatam 2021; 9 (3) :36-44 (Persian).
124. Klomek AB. Suicide prevention during the COVID-19 outbreak. The lancet psychiatry. 2020; 7(5): 390.
125. Lima CK, de Medeiros Carvalho PM, Lima ID, de Oliveira Nunes JV, Saraiva JS, de Souza RI, da Silva CG, Neto ML. The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease). Psychiatry research. 2020; 287: 112915.
126. Fung HT, Lai KP, Luk MH, Chan PF. Evaluation of the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Chinese Patients with Common Mental Disorders in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study. Open Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; 12(2):157-73.
127. Nie XD, Wang Q, Wang MN, Zhao S, Liu L, Zhu YL, Chen H. Anxiety and depression and its correlates in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. 2021; 25(2): 109-14.
128. Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological medicine. 1979; 9(1): 139-45.
129. Yaghubi, H. Validity and factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in university students. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2012; 6(2): 153-60) Persian).
130. Hajlo N. Psychometric properties of Takata and Sakata's psychosomatic complaints scale among Iranian university students. RBS 2012; 10 (3). (Persian).
131. Tovote P, Fadok JP, Lüthi A. Neuronal circuits for fear and anxiety. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015; 16(6):317-31.
132. Tully P.J, Harrison N.J, Cheung P. Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: a Review. Curr Cardiol Rep.2016; 18: 120.
133. Shabbeh Z, Feizi A, Afshar H, Hassanzade Kashtali A, Adibi P. Identifying the Profiles of Psychosomatic Disorders in an Iranian Adult Population and their Relation to Psychological Problems. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016; 26 (137): 82-94 (Persian).
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181. Wu Z, McGoogan J. M. Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China. JAMA. 2020; 323(13): 1239-1242.
182. Dong X, Wang L., Tao Y,Suo X, Li Y, Liu F, Zhao, Y., Zhang, Q. Psychometric properties of the Anxiety Inventory for Respiratory Disease in patients with COPD in China. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; (12): 49-58.
183. Valero-Moreno S, Lacomba-Trejo, L, Casaña-Granell S. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire on threat perception of chronic illnesses in pediatric patients. Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem. 2020; 28: e3242.
184. Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M. and Benedek, D. M. Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. (2020); 74(4): 281-282.
185. Shadi talab J. Crisis management, post-earthquake disaster planning. Social Sciences Quarterly 1371; 2(3.4): 125-151. (Persian).
186. Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Decety, J. Social neuroscience and its relationship to social psychology. Social Cognition.2010; 28: 675-685.
187. Biro A. The book Culture of Social Sciences (English-French-Persian), Bagher Saroukhani. Tehran: Kayhan. 2010; (Persian).
188. Keyes C. M. Social well-being. Social psychology quarterly. 1998; (2): 121-40.
189. Keyes C. M, Shapiro A. Social Well- being in U.S.A. descriptive epidemiology. In Orville Brim, Carol D. (2004).
190. Safarinia M. Socio-psychological components of health in Iran. Health Psychology Quarterly, 2013; (11): 101-119. (Persian).



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Nejati Ghafoori M, Moshirian Farahi M. Investigation of the Profile of Psychosomatic Disorders and Psychological Problems in Women Recovered from COVID-19. Shefaye Khatam 2023; 11 (3) :1-10
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Volume 11, Issue 3 (Summer 2023) Back to browse issues page
مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam
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