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دوره 9 شماره 2 صفحات 119-139 برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها
نقش آستروسیت‌ها در سیستم عصبی مرکزی: شرایط فیزیولوژیک و پاتولوژیک
سمیرا رمضی، فاطمه آرانی، اطلسی صفایی، زینب عباسی، زهرا حیدری، حانیه قاسمیان نافچی، هما محمد‌صادقی، فریبا کریم زاده*
مرکز تحقیقات سلولی و مولکولی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران ، karimzade.f@iums.ac.ir
چکیده:   (315 مشاهده)
مقدمه: آستروسیت‌ها سلول‌هایی با ویژگی‌های عملکردی و ظاهری مشخص، در نواحی معینی از مغز وجود دارند و در نوروژنز، سیناپتوژنز، کنترل نفوذ پذیری سد خونی- مغزی و حفظ هموستاز خارج سلولی، نقش تنظیم کننده دارند. به‌علاوه، آستروسیت‌ها بر اساس نیاز سلول‌های اطراف و از طریق ارتباط با آکسون ها، دندریت‌ها و سیناپس‌ها، نقش کلیدی در تکامل و تنظیم مدارهای عصبی دارند. همچنین، آستروسیت‌ها از طریق تنظیم عملکرد عصبی، نقش اساسی در پلاستیسیتی سیناپسی و تشکیل حافظه دارد. آستروسیت‌های بالغ پس از آسیب به سیستم عصبی مرکزی فعال شده و به آستروسیت‌های واکنشی A1 و A2 تبدیل می‌شوند. نقش‌های حمایتی آستروسیت‌های واکنشی ممکن است به نقش‌های سمی تبدیل شده و در نهایت منجر به پیشرفت بیماری‌های نورولوژیک گردد. اختلالات نوروترانسمیتر، تکامل آنورمال مغزی و بازسازی مجدد ساختارهای سیناپسی، در مغز بیماران مبتلا به اختلالات نوروسایکولوژیک دیده شده است. مطالعات گسترده‌ای به نقش آستروسیت‌ها در افسردگی، اسکیزوفرنی و وابستگی به دارو اشاره کرده‌اند. از طرف دیگر، آستروسیت‌ها فاکتور مهمی در آسیب نورونی در بیماری نورودژنراتیو هستند. مطالعات نورولوژیک و رادیولوژیک نشان داده‌اند که این بیماری‌ها با التهاب شدید در ارتباط هستند و آستروسیت‌ها از جمله مهمترین سلول‌های دخیل در ایجاد التهاب هستند. آستروسیت‌های واکنشی در پاتولوژی بیماری‌های متنوع نورولوژیک هم چون آلزایمر، پارکینسون، اسکلروزیس جانبی آمیوتروفیک، مالتیپل اسکلروزیس و هانتینگتون نقش دارند. تغییرات در نوروترانسمیترها، ارتباطات سلولی، گیرنده‌ها، مسیرهای سیگنالینگ (خصوصا در زمینه التهاب)، ترشح فاکتورهای التهابی، ‌کانال‌های آبی، ترشح فاکتورهای رشد، رسوب پروتئین، هومئوستاز یونی و در نهایت تغییرات در سایز و تعداد آستروسیت‌ها، از مهم‌ترین مکانیسم‌های پاتوژنیک در آستروسیت‌ها درنظر گرفته شده‌اند. نتیجه‌گیری: تنظیم نمودن آستروسیت‌های واکنشی، می‌تواند یک استراتژی بالینی موثر جهت درمان بیماری‌های عصبی و روانی باشد.
واژه‌های کلیدی: آستروسیت‌ ها، بیماری‌های نورودژنراتیو، اختلالات روانی
متن کامل [PDF 888 kb]   (92 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: مروری | موضوع مقاله: نوروفیزیوپاتولوژی
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ramazi S, arani F, safaei A, abbasi Z, heidari Z, Ghasemian nafchi H, et al . The Role of Astrocytes in the Central Nervous System: Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions. Shefaye Khatam. 2021; 9 (2) :119-139
URL: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-2216-fa.html

رمضی سمیرا، آرانی فاطمه، صفایی اطلسی، عباسی زینب، حیدری زهرا، قاسمیان نافچی حانیه، و همکاران.. نقش آستروسیت‌ها در سیستم عصبی مرکزی: شرایط فیزیولوژیک و پاتولوژیک. مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم. 1400; 9 (2) :119-139

URL: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-2216-fa.html



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مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam
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