[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles Archive::
Guide for Authors::
For Reviewers::
Ethical Statements::
Site Facilities::
Contact us::
Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
Copyright Policies




Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

:: Volume 8, Issue 4 (Autumn 2020) ::
Shefaye Khatam 2020, 8(4): 80-89 Back to browse issues page
Sensitivity and Specificity Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) in Diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorders: systematic review
Reza Gorji , Saeid Hassanzadeh * , Sogand Ghasemzadeh , Masoud Qolamali Lavasani
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran , Shasanz@ut.ac.ir
Abstract:   (4382 Views)
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder is a sort of disorder which has been vastly spreaded in recent years thus a set of expanded researches is carried out toward determining its different aspects. Sampling and Autism spectrum disorder diagnosis have always been of the basic needs in this scope. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of GARS globally. Materials and Methods: Using the method of systematic review and the key words including Gilliam Autism Rating scale and Autism spectrum disorders screening tools in data sources such as googlescholar, scopus, springer, sciencedirect, magiran and SID in years 1995 to 2019, 135 essays have been written among which 52 were on psychometric properties of other diagnostic tools, 34 out of 83 considered as diagnosis tools, 32 were about the discoveries of the researches and17 were on the psychometric findings of GARS. Results: Results indicated that various editions of GARS have been translated into Jordanian, Korean, Chinese, Turkish, Spanish, Arabic and Persian languages among which the second edition has been greatly investigated, taking this point into attention that the third edition was published in 2014. Some findings in psychometric components including sensitivity (0/48 to 0/99) and Specificity (0/48 to 1) have been also investigated. Conclusion: Results prove that GARS and its various versions have been used in a large number of researches; showing the significance. According to what mentioned above, investigation of GARS psychometric scale features which has been collected based on DSM, plays an important role for using the scale in diagnosis process.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Gilliam autism rating scale, Normalization
Full-Text [PDF 1368 kb]   (2871 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research --- Open Access, CC-BY-NC | Subject: Basic research in Neuroscience
1. APA. American psychiatric association, diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, American psychiatric association. 5th ed. Washington, DC, USA2013. [DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596]
2. Rey GF, Rodríguez JS, Llinares ML, Vicens P, Camps M, Torrente M, et al. A systematic review of instruments for early detection of autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 2019; 19(1): 29-38.
3. Keil A, Breunig C, Fleischfresser S, Oftedahl E. Promoting routine use of developmental and autism-specific screening tools by pediatric primary care clinicians. WMJ. 2014; 113(6): 227-31.
4. Little SG, Akin-Little A. Preschool, early childhood, and adolescence. Matson J. handbook of assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 2016. P. 175-90. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-27171-2_10]
5. Andersson GW, Gillberg C, Miniscalco C. Pre-school children with suspected autism spectrum disorders: do girls and boys have the same profiles? Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2013; 34(1): 413-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.08.025]
6. Samadi SA, McConkey R. Screening for autism in Iranian preschoolers: contrasting M-CHAT and a scale developed in Iran. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2015; 45(9): 2908-16. [DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2454-1]
7. Durkin MS, Elsabbagh M, Barbaro J, Gladstone M, Happe F, Hoekstra RA, et al. Autism screening and diagnosis in low resource settings: challenges and opportunities to enhance research and services worldwide. Autism Research. 2015; 8(5): 473-6. [DOI:10.1002/aur.1575]
8. Scahill LD. Gabapentin. Volkmar FR. Encyclopedia of Autism spectrum disorders. New York, NY: Springer New York. 2013; P. 1391.
9. McConachie H, Parr JR, Glod M, Hanratty J, Livingstone N, Oono IP, et al. Systematic review of tools to measure outcomes for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Health Technology Assessment. 2015; 19(41): 1-506. [DOI:10.3310/hta19410]
10. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Skinner R, Martin J, Clubley E. The Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. J Autism Dev Disord. 2001; 31(1): 5-17. [DOI:10.1023/A:1005653411471]
11. Klose LM, Plotts C, Kozeneski N, Skinner-Foster J. A review of assessment tools for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders: Implications for school practice. Assessment for Effective Intervention. 2012; 37(4): 236-42. [DOI:10.1177/1534508411415090]
12. Ozdemir O, Diken IH, Diken O, Sekercioglu G. Reliability and validity of modified turkish version of Autism behavior checklist (ABC): results of pilot study. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education. 2013; 5(2): 183-6. [DOI:10.20489/intjecse.107931]
13. Pandolfi V, Magyar CI, Dill CA. Constructs assessed by the GARS-2: factor analysis of data from the standardization sample. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010; 40(9): 1118-30. [DOI:10.1007/s10803-010-0967-1]
14. Allen RA, Robins DL, Decker SL. Autism spectrum disorders: Neurobiology and current assessment practices. Psychology in the Schools. 2008; 45(10): 905-17. [DOI:10.1002/pits.20341]
15. Falkmer T, Anderson K, Falkmer M, Horlin C. Diagnostic procedures in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic literature review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2013; 22(6): 329-40. [DOI:10.1007/s00787-013-0375-0]
16. Mazefsky CA, Oswald DP. The discriminative ability and diagnostic utility of the ADOS-G, ADI-R, and GARS for children in a clinical setting. Autism. 2006; 10(6): 533-49. [DOI:10.1177/1362361306068505]
17. Lecavalier L. An evaluation of the Gilliam autism rating scale. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2005; 35(6): 795. [DOI:10.1007/s10803-005-0025-6]
18. Volker MA, Dua EH, Lopata C, Thomeer ML, Toomey JA, Smerbeck AM, et al. Factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a developmental disabilities sample. Autism Res Treat. 2016; 2016: 8243079. [DOI:10.1155/2016/8243079]
19. Randall M, Egberts KJ, Samtani A, Scholten RJ, Hooft L, Livingstone N, et al. Diagnostic tests for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in preschool children. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018; 7: Cd009044. [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD009044.pub2]
20. Saffari M, Sanaeinasab H, Pakpour AH. How to do a systematic review regard to health: A narrative review. Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion. 2013; 1(1): 51-61.
21. South M, Williams BJ, McMahon WM, Owley T, Filipek PA, Shernoff E, et al. Utility of the gilliam Autism rating scale in research and clinical populations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2002; 32(6): 593-9. [DOI:10.1023/A:1021211232023]
22. Al Jabery MA. The examination of validity and reliability indicators of the Jordanian translated Arabic version of the gilliam Autism rating scale (GARS-2). USA: Wayne State University. 2008.
23. Milakovic D. Factor analysis and predictive ability of a teacher-completed autism rating scale in an Urban school setting. USA: Philadelphia College. 2014.
24. Eaves RC, Woods-Groves S, Williams T, Fall A. Reliability and validity of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale and the Gilliam autism rating scale. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities. 2006; 41(3): 300-9.
25. Montgomery JM, Newton B, Smith C. Test review: Gilliam, J.(2006). GARS-2: gilliam Autism rating scale-second edition. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 2008; 26(4): 395-401. [DOI:10.1177/0734282908317116]
26. Ahmadi SJ ST, Hemmatian M, Khalili Z. Exploring the criterion of diagnosing Autism (GARS). Journal Research Cognitive Behavior. 2013; 1(1): 104-87.
27. Nasiri S. Psychometric properties of children's Autism grading scale. 2nd ed. Tehran: Islamic Azad University of Tehran Central Branch. 2015.
28. Samadi SA, McConkey R. The utility of the Gilliam autism rating scale for identifying Iranian children with Autism. Disabil Rehabil. 2014; 36(6): 452-6. [DOI:10.3109/09638288.2013.797514]
29. Jhin H-KY, Hae-Ju; Park, Jin-Park. Korean-gilliam Autism rating scale-2 (K-GARS-2) standardization. The Journal of Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry. 2011; 17(2): 189-94.
30. Li N. Preliminary validation of the childhood Autism rating scale-questionnaire for parents or caregivers (cars2-Qpc) and the gilliam Autism rating scale (gars-2) with A chinese-speaking population. USA: Eastern Kentucky University. 2012.
31. Diken IH, ARDıÇ A, DİKEN Ö, GıLLıAM JE. Exploring the validity and reliability of turkish version of gilliam Autism rating scale-2: turkish standardization study. Eğitim ve Bilim. 2012; 37(166): 318-28.
32. Jackson LS, Little SG, Akin-Little A. The spanish adaptation of the gilliam Autism rating scale-2: translation and psychometric analysis. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2013; 7(9): 1160-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2013.06.005]
33. El Shourbagi S, Abd-El-Fattah SM. The adaptation of gilliam Autism rating scale-2 within an omani context: some initial findings. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies. 2019; 4(1): 1-10. [DOI:10.9734/ajess/2019/v4i130108]
34. Hampton J, Strand PS. A review of level 2 parent-report instruments used to screen children aged 1.5-5 for Autism: A meta-analytic update. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015; 45(8): 2519-30. [DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2419-4]
35. Karren BC. A test review: gilliam, JE (2014). gilliam Autism rating scale-(GARS-3). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 2017; 35(3): 342-6. [DOI:10.1177/0734282916635465]
36. Keyhani S. Psychometric properties of gilliam autism scaling scale based on DSM5. Tehran: University of Tehran. 2016.
37. Minaei A, Nazeri S. Psychometric properties of the gilliam Autism rating scale-third edition (GARS-3) in individuals with autism: A pilot study. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2018; 18(2): 113-22.
38. Norris M, Lecavalier L. Screening accuracy of level 2 Autism spectrum disorder rating scales: A review of selected instruments. Autism. 2010; 14(4): 263-84. [DOI:10.1177/1362361309348071]
39. Duda M, Daniels J, Wall DP. Clinical evaluation of a novel and mobile autism risk assessment. J Autism Dev Disord. 2016; 46(6): 1953-61. [DOI:10.1007/s10803-016-2718-4]

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Gorji R, Hassanzadeh S, Ghasemzadeh S, Qolamali Lavasani M. Sensitivity and Specificity Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) in Diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorders: systematic review. Shefaye Khatam 2020; 8 (4) :80-89
URL: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-2157-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 8, Issue 4 (Autumn 2020) Back to browse issues page
مجله علوم اعصاب شفای خاتم The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 45 queries by YEKTAWEB 4642